Investigation Of The Effect Of Hemoglobin Values Of Elite Football Players On Endurance
The aim of this research is to examine the effect of hemoglobin values of elite football players on endurance. 90 healthy elite football players between the ages of 13-18, who play licensed football in the football infrastructure of a sports club, regularly train 5 days a week, participated in the research voluntarily. The subjects were informed about the purpose and content of the study and their motivation levels were increased.
As a result, in the variance test of the difference between the arithmetic means applied to the measurements, no significant relationship was found between the hemoglobin and endurance values of the subjects.
World championships, Olympics and international tournaments are the most conducive environments for the development of sports and for high-level analysis. In order to achieve success, especially at the international level, science must enter the sport 1.
One of the important reasons why there has been a great increase in research on elite athletes in recent years is that success is directly related to the factors affecting performance and physical and physiological characteristics. Success in sports will be possible with the completion of many interconnected features such as the links of the chain 2.
The data to be revealed by the studies to be carried out on athletes not only help to better understand sports and sports physiology, but also help to interpret the changes that occur in the body of people who do sports 3.
Physical activity is an important function of the living system. As it affects many systems, it also affects hematological parameters. Adaptation to exercise plays an important role in the regulation of physiological responses such as adaptation of cardiovascular activity and physical and physiological balance in humans, as well as many other factors at hematological levels 4, 5.
Depending on the type, intensity and duration of exercise, there may be changes in hematological parameters. Hematological values during and after intense exercise may vary due to differences such as the training status of the person, gender, age, environmental conditions and nutrition. Hematological changes are observed in athletes due to long-term exercises 6, 7, 8.
1.1. Purpose of the research
The aim of this research is to examine the effect of hemoglobin values of elite football players on endurance.
1.1.1 Research Hypothesis
1. Elite football players with high hemoglobin values are more resistant than elite football players with low hemoglobin values .
It is assumed that the 1st research group will participate in the tests and measurements with high motivation.
1. The research is limited to a sports club football infrastructure.
2. Limited to elite players.
3. Limited between 2015-2016 .
2. Information And Literature Search
2.1. Definition And History Of Football
Football is a unique global game between two teams of eleven players. gather played team sport . As of the 21st century, it is played by over 250 million players in over 200 countries and is the most popular sport in the world 9.
FIFA, the first game that resembles football and has scientific evidence, was played in 300-200 BC. Played for military training in China states that it is based on cuju . In this game, which aims to insert a ball made of leather filled with hair and feathers into a 30-40 cm high castle fixed with two bamboo canes; it was possible to touch the ball anywhere except the hands and arms. a few centuries later In Japan , with traces of cuju and its existence was first encountered in 644. The game called Kemari appeared. Unlike cuju, the aim of non-competitive kemari was based on the players in a circular area hitting the ball with their feet and sending the ball to each other without dropping it to the ground. In Europe, the first known game similar to football, played in ancient Greece episky is a game. In the game where contact with every part of the body was free, the players were divided into two teams and each team tried to pass the ball over the line at the end of the opposing team’s area by passing or throwing the ball. Similar to this game later During the Roman Empire harpastum played with the name 10.
2.1.1 Elite Football Player Definition
They are people who have accepted professionalism as a virtue, can take pleasure in fulfilling the requirements of their job, can turn difficulties into games and entertainment, and are able to be in control in any situation.
2.2. Definition Of Hemoglobin
Hemoglobin is a protein-containing substance that gives blood its red color. Hemoglobin enables erythrocytes to carry out oxygen and carbon dioxide transport. When fully saturated, 1 gram of hemoglobin can carry 1.34 mL of oxygen. An average adult has a total of 600 grams of hemoglobin, and this amount of hemoglobin can carry about 800 ml of oxygen at a time. Although its traditional unit is d/dl, the recommended international unit is g/dl. The situations in which it increases and decreases are the same as those that increase and decrease the number of erythrocytes. The reasons for the preanalytical variation that cause a change in the measurement result are the same as those that cause a change in the erythrocyte count 30.
The oxygen carrying capacity of hemoglobin, which is found in approximately 4-6 billion red blood cells in the body, is 70 times greater than the oxygen soluble in plasma. Approximately 98% of the oxygen in the blood is transported by chemically binding to Hb. Therefore, the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood mainly depends on the amount of Hb. One gram of Hb combines with 1.34 ml of oxygen and in this case the Hb is saturated. After endurance training, blood volume also increases. This increase generally occurs in plasma. The increase in some hormones and plasma proteins as a result of training causes more fluid retention in the blood and therefore the blood plasma volume seeks. In addition, the amount of erythrocytes and Hb in the blood increases with training. As the amount of red blood cells in the blood increases, so does the plasma volume. Therefore, while the amount of cells in the blood increases, the hematocrit (Hct) decreases 23.
Table 1. Hemoglobin values by age
2.3. Durability And Maximum Oxygen Consumption
In addition to being an indicator of body type performance in sedentary and elite athletes, there are some conditional elements of motoric characteristics that affect the performance of the person. Basically, one of the three important criteria of these conditional elements is endurance 11.
Endurance is a basic and motoric (conditional) feature that people need in order to make their lives more active and to provide social dynamism, both in sports games and in normal life. Under the general concept of aerobic endurance, it is expressed as “a performance characteristic that must be endured for as long as possible”.
Endurance, which is related to performance, fatigue and recovery on the one hand, and energy, coordination, biomechanical and psychological domains on the other, is generally defined as “adaptation or training status, functional structure and basic physical property of the organism” 12. Under the title of physical endurance, it is defined as “the sum of events that ensure the balance of biological events for as long as possible in high and long-paced bodily loads” 13. Resilience specifies the limits of time during which a certain intensity of work will be performed. One of the main factors that limits and also affects the productivity of the person is fatigue. When a person does not get tired easily or can continue to work even though he is tired, this person is considered to be resilient. This situation manifests itself in the ability to resist fatigue under long-term load on the one hand, and the ability of the organism to return to normal very quickly after the load, on the other hand 14.
The organism’s ability to resist fatigue occurs in different forms in different sports branches in terms of severity and endurance. These different effects have created different endurance categories in sports science 15.
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